Thursday, July 31, 2008

The Kardashev scale

The Kardashev scale is a general method of classifying how technologically advanced a civilization is. It was first proposed in 1964 by the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev. The scale has three designated categories called Type I, II, and III. These are based on the amount of usable energy a civilization has at its disposal, and the degree of space colonization. In general terms, a Type I civilization has achieved mastery of the resources of its home planet, Type II of its solar system, and Type III of its galaxy.

Lilypad cities that would be great for a Type 1

IT COULD be the solution to rising sea levels - a floating city for 50,000 people in the shape of a lily pad.

"Lilypad" is the brainchild of Belgian architect Vincent Callebaut.

"Lilypad is what a completely self-sufficient floating city for 50,000 people could look like," he said. "The design of the city is inspired by the shape of the great Amazonia Victoria Regia lily pad.

"Some countries spend billions of pounds working on making their beaches and dams bigger and stronger but the Lilypad project is actually a long-term solution to the problem of the water rising.

Mr Callebaut's computer-generated design is of an amphibious city without any roads or any cars. "The whole city is covered by plants housed in suspended gardens," he said. "The goal is to create a harmonious co-existence of humans and nature."

Mr Callebaut's solution would be to house all the refugees in the floating lily-pad cities. Each city has a lake at its centre to collect fresh water and uses solar, wind and wave power to create energy.

These are pictures of how Lilypad cities would look.

Here's a video. It's not in English but the visuals are nice.

Do Type 1 Civilizations need Governments or ones that are limited?

Maybe, we needed governments in the past, but will we need them in the future?

Governments are set up as a system of control in order to monitor information and keep order. As the world becomes global, the need for government control decreases. This is because information, ideas and technology should be shared throughout the population of the world without governments saying who can have or share this information.

You have to look at free trade as well and the free exachange of goods and services. Without Governments or a limited government, everyday people will easily be able to compete with Corporations for customers. That's because these corporations would not have governments to lobby who enact laws that give them an advantage. A guy could start a cable company from his home and compete with Time Warner when it comes to prices and customers.

The seeds of a Type 1 civilization can be seen with things like the internet and english becoming the language of buisness throughout the world.

There would still be a need for local law enforcement throughout the world. This local enforcement will be paid for by the local populations.

The problem with governments is that they tend to create false needs. In other words, you need them for protection, health care and other things. This is a system of control that a Type 1 Civilization doesn't need.

NASA confirms water on Mars and other intriguing cases

NASA Spacecraft Confirms Martian Water, Mission Extended

TUCSON, Ariz. -- Laboratory tests aboard NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander have identified water in a soil sample. The lander's robotic arm delivered the sample Wednesday to an instrument that identifies vapors produced by the heating of samples. "We have water," said William Boynton of the University of Arizona, lead scientist for the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. "We've seen evidence for this water ice before in observations by the Mars Odyssey orbiter and in disappearing chunks observed by Phoenix last month, but this is the first time Martian water has been touched and tasted."

This supports theories like Panspermia. This is why Nobel Prize winner Francis Crick came up with the theory of directed panspermia. He said that there wasn't enough time for life to form on earth so it must have come from elswhere in space and Frick was an agnostic leaning towards atheism. This is just what the evidence showed him and it's starting to bear itself out.

You have red rain. This could be extra-terrestrial microbes that landed on earth just as we did billions of years ago. What makes this finding most important is the biological cell like nature of these red particles. Under optical microscope they appear like biological cells and the Transmission Electron Microscopy further shows a clear cell structure. Their organic nature is indicated by the major presence of carbon and oxygen. But despite these biological indications the cells do not show the presence of DNA. The genetic molecule DNA is present in all living organisms found on Earth. So the absence of DNA argues against the biological nature of these red rain cells. The red cells found in the red rain in Kerala, India are now considered as a possible case of extraterrestrial life form. These cells can undergo rapid replication even at an extreme high temperature of 300 deg C. They can also be cultured in diverse unconventional chemical substrates. The molecular composition of these cells is yet to be identified. This paper reports the unusual autofluorescence characteristic of the cultured red rain cells. A spectrofluorimetric study has been performed to investigate this, which shows a systematic shift of the fluorescence emission peak wavelength as the excitation wavelength is increased. Conventional biomolecules are not known to have this property. Details of this investigation and the results are discussed.

Dr. Godfrey Louis had a peer-reviewed paper published in the journal, Astrophysics and Space Science. Also, some scientist believe that Venus may have had oceans of water and microbes may be living in the acidic clouds. The acidic clouds of Venus could in fact be hiding life. Unlikely as it sounds, the presence of microbes could neatly explain several mysterious observations of the planet's atmosphere. Even more mysterious is the presence of carbonyl sulphide. This gas is so difficult to produce inorganically that it is sometimes considered an unambiguous indicator of biological activity. "There may be non-biological ways to produce the hydrogen sulphide or carbonyl sulphide that we do not know about, but both reactions need catalysts to proceed efficiently," says Schulze-Makuch. "On Earth, the most efficient catalysts are microbes." He thinks that bugs living in the Venusian clouds could be combining sulphur dioxide with carbon monoxide and possibly hydrogen to produce either hydrogen sulphide or carbonyl sulphide in a metabolism similar to that of some early Earth bugs. He suggests the bugs could be using ultraviolet light from the Sun as an energy source.

Now NASA confirms that there's water on Mars.

The next thing they will say, is that it's a high probability that intelligent life evolved elswhere since the condition for life are easily met outside of earth.

Translation: This will be like saying extra-terrestrial life exists in scientific terms. The U.F.O.'s would not have to travel light years to get here if they evolved in our own back yard.

Dr. Michio Kaku on Type 1, 2 and 3 Civilizations

Skeptic Michael Shermer Article

Toward a Type 1 civilization

Our civilization is fast approaching a tipping point. Humans will need to make the transition from nonrenewable fossil fuels as the primary source of our energy to renewable energy sources that will allow us to flourish into the future. Failure to make that transformation will doom us to the endless political machinations and economic conflicts that have plagued civilization for the last half-millennium. We need new technologies to be sure, but without evolved political and economic systems, we cannot become what we must. And what is that? A Type 1 civilization. Let me explain.In a 1964 article on searching for extraterrestrial civilizations, the Soviet astronomer Nikolai Kardashev suggested using radio telescopes to detect energy signals from other solar systems in which there might be civilizations of three levels of advancement: Type 1 can harness all of the energy of its home planet; Type 2 can harvest all of the power of its sun; and Type 3 can master the energy from its entire galaxy. Based on our energy efficiency at the time, in 1973 the astronomer Carl Sagan estimated that Earth represented a Type 0.7 civilization on a Type 0 to Type 1 scale. (More current assessments put us at 0.72.) As the Kardashevian scale is logarithmic -- where any increase in power consumption requires a huge leap in power production -- we have a ways before 1.0. Fossil fuels won't get us there. Renewable sources such as solar, wind and geothermal are a good start, and coupled to nuclear power could eventually get us to Type 1.Yet the hurdles are not solely -- or even primarily -- technological ones. We have a proven track record of achieving remarkable scientific solutions to survival problems -- as long as there is the political will and economic opportunities that allow the solutions to flourish. In other words, we need a Type 1 polity and economy, along with the technology, in order to become a Type 1 civilization. We are close. If we use the Kardashevian scale to plot humankind's progress, it shows how far we've come in the long history of our species from Type 0, and it leads us to see what a Type 1 civilization might be like:,0,5301697.story